The research team at University of Limerick
Professor Amanda Haynes, Department of Sociology, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页, Dr Sindy Joyce, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页社会学系旅行者研究讲师, Olive O’Reilly, Assistant Researcher, Margaret O’Brien, 助理研究员兼教授Jennifer Schweppe, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页’s School of Law Picture: Alan Place
Thursday, June 23, 2022

A groundbreaking new study by researchers at University of Limerick has examined for the first time the relationship between Travellers and the Irish criminal justice system.

The Irish Travellers’ Access to Justice (ITAJ) 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页研究小组的报告 was officially launched this Thursday morning.

由爱尔兰人权与平等委员会和爱尔兰研究理事会在COALESCE方案下资助, the research documents for the first time Travellers’ perceptions and experiences of the criminal justice process in Ireland – particularly with the judiciary and An Garda Síochána.

The report is the culmination of an 18-month long project that 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员 Sinead Gibney has said is a ‘landmark study’ in both its conduct and findings.

It is an authoritative analysis and makes evidence based recommendations for measures to address Travellers’ ability to use the tools of the criminal justice system to protect their rights. Among the key barriers to accessing justice is institutional racism towards Travellers found to be prevalent in the criminal justice system.

该报告采用了混合方法,包括调查、访谈和焦点小组. During the course of conducting the research, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页的研究人员与爱尔兰26个郡中的25个郡的每100名旅行者中就有一人进行了交谈.

研究结果反映出有必要彻底改变刑事司法机构参与的方式, perceive, and address Travellers.

The research finds that Travellers’ trust in the Irish criminal justice system is extremely low and that fears of wrongful arrest, excessive use of force, wrongful conviction, disproportionately high sentences and wrongful imprisonment frame the way Travellers engage with and experience the criminal justice system.

该报告详细记录了旅行者作为嫌疑人对刑事司法机构的看法和经验, victims, and those who are the accused in criminal cases.

Sinead Gibney, 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员, said: “This report breaks new ground in speaking with a huge diversity of Travellers nationally about their personal experiences with our criminal justice system as victims of crime or as those accused. It is abundantly clear that the relationship between Travellers and our criminal justice system too often starts from a point of mistrust, developed over decades.

“这份报告需要被广泛阅读和分享,并被用作改革的证据基础, 让威尼斯网上官方的刑事司法系统向所有人开放.”

Speaking about the research, Professor Amanda Haynes, Department of Sociology, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页表示:“为了能够使用法律程序来保护您的权利, 首先,你必须足够信任这个系统,才能与它打交道. 这份报告显示旅行者不相信爱尔兰刑事司法系统会公平对待他们, and that their mistrust in grounded in personal and shared experiences of unsatisfactory and sometimes biased treatment at the hands of criminal justice professionals, as victims and suspects.

参与这项研究的旅行者们在警察和法官中找到了优秀的例子, 这些经历被描述为例外而非规律.”

Professor Jennifer Schweppe, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页’s School of Law, 他说:“威尼斯网上官方的研究表明,‘旅行者’作为嫌疑人同时受到过度监管,而作为受害者却受到监管不足。. Our research findings, 这反映了欧盟基本权利机构在六个国家的罗姆人和旅行者的关键发现, 证据表明,在刑事程序内部和整个过程中对旅行者存在重大的人权关切.

“在爱尔兰法庭上,游民社区的成员看不到正义的伸张.”

Dr Sindy Joyce, 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页社会学系旅行者研究讲师, 他说:“旅行者社区的成员不会对这项研究的结果感到惊讶, whose experiences and perceptions of the criminal justice process are unequivocally linked to both their identity as a historically traditionally nomadic community, 以及他们现在在爱尔兰社会中作为一个被种族化的土著民族群体的地位.

“最重要的是,这项研究是为了旅行者的利益, 引导刑事司法系统进行有意义的改革是必要的.”

Supreme Court Judge, Mr Justice John Mac Menamin; 爱尔兰人权和平等委员会首席专员, Sinead Gibney; Superintendent Michael Corbett of the Garda National Diversity and Integration Unit; and Maria Joyce of the National Traveller Women’s Forum attended the launch of the report this Thursday morning along with 威尼斯正版官方网站官方首页 President Professor Kerstin Mey. 司法部长Helen McEntee TD发表了预先录制的发言.

这项研究是由国家旅行者妇女论坛的代表提供建议的, The Irish Traveller Movement, Pavee Point, Minceirs Whiden, The Traveller Mediation Service, An Garda Síochána, the Department of Justice, 爱尔兰人权与平等委员会和爱尔兰研究委员会.

Key findings from the research include:

Experiences:

  • Half of the Travellers responding to the ITAJ survey were victims of criminal offences in the five years prior to the survey; only one-fifth had been arrested in that time period;  
  • Half of those surveyed had been present in a home that gardaí entered without permission; when asked about the last case in which that happened, 在这些案件中,只有11%的人被出示了搜查令;
  • 旅行者报告听到gardaí和法官公开表达种族主义; 
  • In the context of stop and search, 旅行者讲述了加尔达骚扰的经历, threats to abuse power, garda provocation, Gardaí故意升级冲突和有辱人格的待遇;
  • 64% of Travellers who were in garda custody in the five years prior to the survey did not feel safe the last time they were in custody; 
  • Travellers described positive experiences with criminal justice professionals as characterised by the professional treating them respectfully - listening to them, being compassionate, 大声捍卫自己的权利和尊严,并积极响应. However, 与一个来自刑事司法机构的人的积极经验, 对于大多数受访者来说,这是例外,而不是规则, 并没有改变受访者对该机构的整体看法;
  • 当被问及在ITAJ调查之前的5年里他们最后一次被加尔达拦下的情况时, 59%的人表示,他们认为自己被拦下是因为自己是旅行者. 那些认为自己被种族歧视的人: 
  • 78%的人解释说阻止他们的加尔达人知道他们是旅行者; 
  • 53%的人表示阻止他们的加尔达以阻止旅行者而闻名; 
  • 46%的人表示,警察拦截的地点使他们确信自己受到了种族歧视;
  • 23% stated that the Garda who stopped them said something about their Traveller identity or about Travellers generally;

Perceptions:

  • The levels of trust that Travellers have in the gardaí is approximately half that of the general population; trust levels in the police are lower again among those who have been victims of crime;
  • 旅行者对法官的信任程度明显低于普通民众对法律制度的信任程度;
  • 2019年Garda公众态度调查(GPAS)衡量了普通民众对gardaí的态度. 当将gpa调查结果与ITAJ与traveller的调查结果进行比较时,威尼斯网上官方看到了相反的模式: 
  • 71% of the general population agree that with the statement “the gardaí in this area treat everyone fairly regardless of who they are, while 84% of Travellers disagree; 
  • 95% of the general population agree with the statement that the gardaí would treat you with respect; while 91% of Travellers do not believe that gardaí treat Travellers with respect; 75% of Travellers believe that judges do not treat Travellers with respect;
  • 89% of Travellers believe that the gardaí are more strict in dealing with Travellers compared to settled people; 82% of Travellers believe that judges are more strict in dealing with Travellers compared to settled people.

Key Recommendations 

根据研究结果,该研究提出了广泛的循证建议,包括:

  1. The introduction of an ethnic identifier throughout the criminal process from the point of reporting to the point of sentencing, 包括进入和搜查房屋以及必须记录的拦截和搜查. 承诺将得到的数据提供给独立的研究人员. 出版一份关于刑事程序中的少数族裔的年度报告.  
  2. The development, publication, 为游民社区提供资金并实施刑事司法战略, 在刑事程序的每个分支内部和跨分支的范围内解决信任差距, 合法性和问责制影响着游民社区. This strategy should include the development of an independent Traveller justice advisory group to provide advice on justice related issues and to monitor implementation of the strategy.  
  3. The establishment of a robust and effective independent complaints body operating across the criminal legal process and staffed by a dedicated team of investigators with no continuing connection to any of the criminal justice agencies. This body should be able to accept and respond to complaints regarding any criminal justice agency or professional including customs officers and judges.